What are the sources of various features in Indian Constitution

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Source Governance Principles
Govt. of India Act 1935 Administrative details, Federal System(from constitution of Canada), Power of federal judiciary, Emergency provisions, Public Service Commissions, Office of Governor
Britain Parliamentary Government, Institution of Speaker and his role, Rule of law, Single Citizenship, Procedure established by Law
Ireland or Irish Constitution Directive Principles of State Policy, Nomination of Rajya Sabha members, Method of Presidential election
United States Constitution President as supreme commander of armed forces, Electoral College, Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Impeachement of Supreme court and High court judges, Independent Judiciary, Functions Vice-President, Judicial Review of Preamble.
United Kingdom Parliamentary form of govt., Citizenship, Law making procedure, Bicameral Legislature, Rule of Law, Writs, CAG Office.
Canada  Federation with strong centre, Residual powers retained by the central government, Governors Appointment(by centre), Review by Supreme Court
Australia Freedom of trade and Commerce, Concept of Concurrent list, Joint Sitting of Parliament, Principal of Co-operative Federalism,
Japan Procedures Established by Law
South Africa Procedure for amendment, Election of Members to Rajya Sabha
France Concept of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
Russia Fundamental Duties, Idea of Social, Economic and Political Justice in Preamble
 Germany  Fundamental Rights are suspended during emergency, Emergency provisions

The constitution of India has many features that made it stand out from the constitutions of other countries. Many said that Indian Constitution is a bag of borrowings. It is the lengthiest constitution and mixture of various  constitutions. But Most of the parts were copied from Government of India Act 1935.  The chairman of drafting committee Dr. B. R. Ambedkar had said in this regard that: –

As to the accusation that the Draft Constitution has reproduced a good part of the provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, I make no apologies. There is nothing to be ashamed of in borrowing. It involves no plagiarism. Nobody holds any patent rights in the fundamental ideas of a Constitution….”


A Demrot is the founder of VideRime Online Learning, a leading engineering website. He did his BE Civil and M.Tech Structure from RGPV University, Bhopal and has been working as an Assistant Professor in a reputed college.

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