Causes of Water logging
Causes of Water logging are:
(i) Seepage of water through canals: Seepage of water through the bed and sides of adjacent canals, reservoirs, etc., which are higher than the affected land, results in a high water table. If the soil at the site of canals, reservoirs, etc. is highly permeable, this seepage will be excessive.
(ii) Infiltration of water from adjacent uplands: Water from adjacent uplands may infiltrate into the subsurface of the affected land and raise the groundwater table.
(iii) Excessive and intensive irrigation: The maximum irrigable area of a small region is irrigated when a policy of intensive irrigation is followed. This leads to too much irrigation, which results in heavy seepage and a rise in the groundwater table. Therefore, a policy of extensive irrigation should replace the policy of intensive irrigation to avoid waterlogging.
(iv) Terrain topography: In steep terrain, water is rapidly drained. However, in flat or irregular terrain with depressions, etc., drainage is very poor. This causes more water to accumulate on the ground, resulting in more infiltration and a higher water table.
(v) Heavy rainfall: Excessive rainfall can cause temporary waterlogging, which can lead to persistent waterlogging in the absence of good drainage.
(vi) Inadequate surface drainage: In the absence of proper drainage, water perpetually seeps below the ground and raises the level of the underground water reservoir. Therefore, rainwater falling on the land and excess irrigation water should be drained and not infiltrated.
(vii) Impervious barriers: movement of water seeping into the ground horizontal but may encounter impervious barriers, causing the water table to rise on the upstream side of the barrier. Likewise, an impermeable layer can form beneath the top layer of permeable soil. In this case, the water that seeps into the permeable soil is unable to penetrate to depths, causing the water table to rise very quickly.
(viii) Inadequate natural drainage: soils with poor subsoil permeability layers below the surface of permeable soil are unable to drain water deeper into the soil, resulting in high water levels in the affected soil.
(ix) Flooding due to floods: If land is continuously flooded, water-loving plants such as weeds and grasses can grow and block the soil’s natural surface drainage, increasing the potential for waterlogging.
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