Define Truss and list the assumptions made for the analysis of a truss
Truss may be defined as a structure made up of several bars joined together at their ends. These bars which are made up of angles or channel sections are called members of the truss. Various members of a truss are joined together by
riveting, welding or by nuts and bolts. However, for calculation purpose, joints are assumed to be hinged or pin-jointed. A truss is a rigid structure, which provides great strength over large span of structure. Thus, it is more practical and economical, than other solid types of structure. A truss is mainly used for supporting roofs of buildings, television towers, antennas, bridges, etc.
A truss is also called as a frame or framed structure. If the centre lines of the members of a truss lie in one plane, the truss is called a plane truss. If these lines do not lie in one plane, as in the case of the shear legs. the truss is called a space truss.
Following assumptions are made, while calculating forces in various members of a plane truss:
(i) All members of a truss are connected at the joints by frictionless pins.
(ii) Trusses are only loaded at the joints and line of action of loads lie in the plane of the truss.
(ii) All members of the truss lie in a common plane, i.e. plane truss.
(iv) The weight of the members is regarded negligible as compared to other external forces or loads acting on truss, unless stated otherwise.
(v) The truss is rigid and does not deform or change its shape due to application of external loads.
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