Relation Between Duty, Delta, and Base Period

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Relation Between Duty, Delta, and Base Period

To understand the relation between duty, delta, and base period in the context of irrigation engineering, we can break it down step by step:

  1. Duty of Water (D): The duty of water is a term used in irrigation engineering to describe the depth of water required for a specific area of land during a specified period. It is typically measured in hectares per cubic meter (ha/m³).
  2. Delta (Δ): Delta represents the total depth of water needed for a crop during its base period. It is expressed in centimeters (cm) and is calculated based on the volume of water required divided by the area of land.
  3. Base Period (B): The base period refers to the duration between sowing and harvesting of a crop. It is measured in days and plays a crucial role in determining the water requirements for irrigation.

The relationship between duty (D), delta (Δ), and base period (B) can be expressed as follows:

If field area of D hectares, water supplied to filed corresponding water depth Δ (meter) will be
Supplied water = Δ. D hectare.meter (1 hactare = 104 m2)


= D x Δ x 104 m3 ———————Equation (1)


Again for same field of D hectares, 1 cumec water required to flow during base period.
Supplied water = 1 x B x 24 x 60 x 60 m3———————-Equation (2)


Equating equation (1) and (2)


D x Δ x 104 = 1 x B x 24 x 60 x 60


Δ = (8.64 B)/D

Relation: Delta = 8.64 * B / D

This formula shows how the total depth of water required for a crop during its base period is influenced by both the duration of the base period and the duty of water assigned to that specific area of land.

Therefore, the duty, delta, and base period are interconnected factors that determine the irrigation needs for crops in agricultural practices.

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Arbaj Demrot is the founder of VideRime Online Learning, a leading engineering website. He did his BE Civil and M.Tech Structure from RGPV University, Bhopal and has been working as an Assistant Professor in a reputed college.

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